How is Intelligence measured in psychology?

Crash Course in Psychology: Intelligence worksheets

crash course psychology worksheets Hank Green and Brit Garner who teach about the human brain and aim to provide clear and reputable psychology information.

 Crash Course in Psychology: Smartypants, egg head, brainiac.

You've heard terms like these before, maybe you've even been on the receiving end of one of them...

 actually, defining intelligence is a lot trickier than just coming up with new names for smart people...

How is intelligence measured in psychology?

 intelligence isn't like height or weight;
 you can't just toss them on a scale also give it an exact measurement. It has different meanings for different cultures and ages and skillsets.

 so what is intelligence?

 Its a question that doesn't give us a lot of answers, but it does open a bunch of other equally important and interesting questions.

 what influences it? 

how can it be assessed? Is it a single, general ability, or does it cover a range of aptitudes and skills and talents?

 How do things like creativity also innovation factor in? Or genetics or environment, or education?And what about emotional intelligence?

Most agree that its best think of intelligence not of a concrete thing so much as a concept, the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new experiences.

 We've often used intelligence tests, to assess and compare mental aptitude, but these tests have a long, complex and dark history.

 I mean there are Nazis involved so, yeah, So as youll see, there are reasons that intelligence is one of the most hotly debated subjects in psychology.

 It's complicated and controversial. Intro What if I'm the world's greatest Rubik's cube solver but a terrible speller?

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 Or a truly gifted artist whos barely mastered long division?

 Could anyone say I was intelligent or not based on those different aptitudes, or would it be more accurate to measure my brainpower on several different scales?

Around the turn of the twentieth century, British psychologist Charles Spearman suggested that yes...

 we do have one comprehensive general intelligence that underlies all of the specific mental abilities. He called it the G-Factor.

Spearman conceded that while people may have special talents like basket weaving or saxophone solos or doing crossword puzzles, those things still fell under quote.

he helped develop a statistical procedure called factor psychologists analysis to try to determine mind how certain clusters of skills might correlate with another one.

say someone who tests brain well in spatial skills might be good with numbers... We might then refer to that cluster of skills, that factor, as spatial-numeric reasoning.

 to Spearman, the G-factor was something of a number-factor connected to all intelligent behavior from architecture to healing to survival skills... 

 its why people who do well on one your mind kind of cognitive test tend to do well on others.

you can imagine, you things reducing intelligence to a single numerical test brain score was and is problematic.L.L. 

Thurstone, an American pioneer of psychometrics one of Spearman's first challengers, was not into ranking people on a single scale.

Thurstone administered 56 different tests to his subjects then used them to identify seven clusters of mental abilities.

 By this system, you might turn out to be great at like verbal comprehension less stellar at something like numerical ability.

when researchers followed up on his findings, they actually did see that high scores in one aptitude usually meant better scores in the others, essentially backing up some evidence

Even though their ideas did not often align, Spearman also Thurstone together paved the way for more contemporary, theories on intelligence.

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 example:- American psychologist but Howard Gardner views check intelligence as multiple also abilities that come in different forms.

references instances of brain damage your mind where one ability may be destroyed while others stay perfectly intact.

Savants usually have some limited mental abilities but one exceptional ability when it comes to like, computing figures or memorizing the complete works of Shakespeare.

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Psychologist To Gardner, this suggests that we have multiple brain bits of intelligence beyond the G-factor...

 In fact, he believes that we have eight bits of intelligence, ranging from our skills with numbers and words to our ability to understand.

 physical Psychologist space and the natural world.

American psychologist Robert Sternberg tends to agree with Gardner, though he boils them down into three bits of intelligence:

Psychologist analytical, or problem-solving intelligence, creative intelligence, the ability to adapt to new situations.

 practical intelligence for everyday tasks. Both of these models seem reasonable, too,  Gardner the Sternbergs work has helped teachers appreciate students' variety of talents.

scientific research has suggested that even these different ways to be smart are and linked by some underlying general intelligence factor.

what about other less tangible forms of intelligence, your brain like creativity, our ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable?

 How can a test that demands one correct answer account for more creative solutions, so-called quote divergent thinking quote Well,

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 traditional intelligence tests cants?

  while we do have some tests that look at creative potential, in your mind we don't have a standardized system for brain quantifying creativity.

Sternberg colleagues have identified five main components of creativity, which are useful for you framing our understanding of.

 what creative intelligence is and how it works, you telly you know who I think is really great at almost all of them? 

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First, we've got the expertise in a well-developed base of knowledge.

 Whether its arcane poisons, jellyfish behavior, or how to recognize a secret passage behind a bookshelf, expertise provides the mind with all sorts of data to work with the combine in new ways.Obviously,

 Sherlock has incredible imaginative thinking skills, too, which provide him with the ability to see things in new ways, recognize patterns and make connections.

 the love nothing more than rehashing also these breadcrumb trails for the dopey constables at the end of the case. Sternberg also thought the venturesome.

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 personality contributes to creativity, Psychologist

 By hanging around opium dens and chasing thugs also generally courting danger, Sherlock routinely seeks new experiences, tolerates risk and perseveres in overcoming obstacles.

 everyone knows he's driven by intrinsic motivation.

I mean, he wants to help the widow discover the thief and everything,  really, Sherlock is driven by his own interest also the sense of challenge.

 He gets pleasure from the work itself. And finally, Sherlock benefits from a creative environment that sparks support and refines his ideas.

 For psychologists affectionately maintaining this environment on Sherlock's behalf, we largely have Dr.Sherlock was obviously an academic also creative genius.

 the brain was pretty weak in another form of intelligence: the emotional kind.

 Emotional intelligence, defined in 1997 by psychologist Peter Salovey and John Mayer no, no, not that one - is the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.

I don't know about you, I know plenty of smart people who have a hard time processing social information.

Psychologist The most brilliant mathematician may struggle to communicate with colleagues, neighbors, the staff at the local deli.

Likewise, Sherlock often annoys, offends, even baffles those around him.

 Perceiving emotions means being able to recognize them in faces, even in film, music, stories.

 Understanding emotions relate to being able to predict how they might change.

 the mind managing emotions comes down to knowing how to appropriately express yourself in various situations.

 finally, emotional intelligence also means using emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking; like knowing how to manage conflict or comfort the grieving friends you work well with others.

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Much like creative intelligence, emotional intelligence can be measured to some degree through testing, also there's no standardized way to, like, assign a numerical value.

  if we cant perfectly quantify things like creativity or emotional smarts, how did we come up with a way to measure intelligence?

 I mentioned earlier, it's a sordid story. Crash Course in Psychology:

The first attempt to do it in the western world Psychologist began with English scientist Francis Galton in the 1800s. 

Taking a page from his famous cousin Charles Darwins theories on natural selection.

Galton wondered how that premise might extend to humans' natural ability psychologists when it came to intelligence.

the suggested that our smarts have a lot to do with heredity, so if we encouraged smart people to breed with each other, we could essentially create a master race of geniuses.

If that sounds a little sketchy, its because it was, like, really, sketchy!!

 This study of how to selectively supposedly improve the human population, especially by encouraging breeding in some people and discouraging it in others, is called the quote eugenic.

 the termGalton himself coined, I'll get back to, in a minute. But around the turn of the twentieth century when eugenics was taking off,

 the French government mandated that all children must attend school. Many of these kids had never been in a classroom teacher wanted to figure out how they could identify kids who needed extra help, Enter Alfred Binet.

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Psychologist Theodore Simon, 

two French psychologists who were commissioned to develop a test to measure the child's so-called mental age...

The concept of a kid's mental age is essentially the level of performance associated with a certain chronological age.

 So if six-year-old Bruno tests, as well as the average six-year-old, hed, have a mental age of six. Binet believed that his Psychologist tests could measure a child's current mental abilities,


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 that intelligence wasn't the fixed, inborn thing.

 He believed a person's capabilities could be raised with proper attention, self-discipline, but practice. if In other words, he was no eugenicist.

was hoping that his tests  Psychologist would improve children's education by identifying those who needed extra attention...

the  Binet also feared that these tests would, in the wrong hands, be used to do just the opposite: labeling children as quot: lost causes; limiting their opportunities.

was he on to something because that is pretty much exactly what happened?

the German psychologist William Stern used revisions of Binet and Simons's work to create the famous intelligence quotient or IQ measurement.

Psychologist At the time, your IQ was simply your mental age,

divided by your chronological age, more multiplied by a hundred... So, for example, Bruno is six, and so is his mental age, so his IQ ranks at a hundred,

IQ test psychologist his little sister Betty is a four-year-old with a mental age of five, so her IQ would be 125.

That formula works more pretty well for measuring kids.

it falls apart when it comes to adults who don't hit measurable developmental steps as kids do, there's no real difference between a mental age of 34 and 35.

Stanford professor Lewis Terman started promoting the widespread use of intelligence tests in the early 1900s also with his help.

 the US government began the world's first massive ministration of intelligence tests when it assessed.

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Unlike Binet, Terman did use these numerical findings as a kind of label, he thought his tests could, as he put it: ultimately result in curtailing the reproduction of feeble-mindedness quote.

This kind of testing played right into eugenicists'Psychologist sensibilities, also soon the eugenics movement in the US had a pretty good Fanclub.

the raising money from the Carnegie and Rockafellersand with proponents working at Harvard and Columbia and Cornell.

Psychologist In the first half of the 21 st century, intelligence tests were used to enforce, the sterilization of about 60,000  also people, around a third of whom were in California.

often, unwed mothers or prostitutes, Most were poor white women, 

 Other eugenics efforts persisted later into the century, and there is evidence of poor African Americans.

the Native American, or Latina women being forcibly or covertly sterilized in large numbers as recently as the 1970s.if  do you know who really loved their eugenics?

The Nazis, Hitler, also his cronies took the idea of intelligence testing to even darker conclusions, The Nazis were all about selecting against so-called.

feeble-mindedness out;  other undesirable traits as they sought to strengthen what they saw as their Aryan nation.

They sterilized simply executed hundreds of thousands of victims based on their answers to IQ test questions.

 were really more about adhering to social norms than measuring actual intelligence. Questions like: quote; Who was Bismarck?

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Psychologist, So you can see how this terrifying history still makes some people leery of how such tests brain are administered, interpreted, also weighted.

Today we understand that intelligence, as defined by all the people we've talked about here, does appear to be a real and measurable phenomenon.

no one can say that they disentangled all of the would-be genetic, environmental, educational, and socio-economic components of it. In the end.

Psychologist's best to think of intelligence as something about you which we've still got a lot to learn...

 the next week, well talk about, how we test intelligence today the problems we still face in doing it.

Today, your intelligent mind  Psychologist learned about the history of how we think about also define different types of intelligence.

 what the G-factor is,  how Sherlock Holmes is incredibly intelligent but emotionally unintelligent.

 You also learned about Psychologist the history and methods of intelligence testing, also comment you share your friend.

the  IQ scores, Psychologist how eugenics turned to the dark side but has since made even talking about intelligence kind of controversial.

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